<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE></TITLE> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <meta name="Keywords" content="ganoi, gadon, ga noi, ga don, g ni, g dn, g, gamefowl, gamecock, chicken, naked heel, naked heelers, tape boxing, cockfight, vietnamese chicken, vietnamese ganoi, vietnamese cockfight, jungle fowl, hennie" /> <meta http-equiv="pragma" content="no-cache" /> <meta http-equiv="cache-control" content="no-cache" /> </HEAD> <BODY background="image/back3.jpg" bgcolor="#ffffff" link="blue" vlink="purple" alink="red" text="#000000"> <TABLE align="center" width="700"> <TBODY> <TR> <TD valign=top align=left> <br><br> <P align="center" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:150%;color:brown"> <b> G&#224; N&#242;i</b></P> <p align="center"><i>A pure, distinguished fighting bloodline</i></p><br> <P align="left" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:110%;color:brown"> <b>Viet Nam, home of G&#224; N&#242;i</b> </P> The origin of g&#224; n&#242;i is unknown. Its history cannot be traced due to the lack of documentation. The 30 years civil war ended in 1975 that killed millions and ruined the whole country further contributed to the lack of information. <br><br> Cockfighting in Viet Nam is an old tradition dating back at least 700 years. G&#224; N&#242;i is believed to be native of Viet Nam as there is no credible evidence of its origination from elsewhere. G&#224; n&#242;i have been exported to neighboring countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia in recent decades. Vietnamese cockers living in the United States had also brought g&#224; n&#242;i to the States. Fowls bearing physical resemblance to ga noi can also be found in the <A HREF="http://www.ganoi.com/reunion.html"><b>Reunion Island.</b></A><br><br> For people who are interested in researching the origin of ga noi, a recent study conducted by a Japanese team on the origin of all chickens in the world can be found at www.accessexcellence.org. The new findings by the Japanese researchers suggest that domestication took place more than 8,000 years ago in what is now Thailand and Vietnam, the region in which the red jungle fowl is found today. You can click on this <A HREF="http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA04/protochicken.html"><b>PROTOCHICKEN</b></A> link to read more about the study.<br><br> <P align="left" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:110%;color:brown"> <b>Definition</b> </P> According to "&#272;&#7841;i Nam Qu&#7889;c &#194;m T&#7921; V&#7883;" a linguistic research book in Vietnamese language, published by a scholar named Hu&#7923;nh T&#7883;nh C&#7911;a <i>(Volume II, in 1896 - page 155)</i>, the word "N&#242;i" means:<br><br> <b>N&#242;i</b> = bloodline, breed. <i>(Vietnamese writing uses diacritical mark)</i><br> <b>G&#224; N&#242;i</b> = A special type of chicken people breed for fighting purpose.<br> <b>R&#7863;t N&#242;i</b> <i>(entirely n&#242;i)</i> = A pure breed, no cross-breeding with the unknown type<br><br> V&#432;&#417;ng H&#7891;ng S&#7875;n, a respected author who told stories of cockfighting in 1915 in his book "Phong L&#432;u C&#361; M&#7899;i", published in 1961, gave another definition of "N&#242;i" as: <ul type="disc"> <li>Race</li> <li>An ancestral line</li> <li>A distinguish ancestry</li> <li>A recorded purity of breed of an individual or strain</li> </ul> The DICTIONNAIRE ANNAMITE-FRANCAIS prepared and edited by Gnibrel, J-F-M published in 1898 also gave similar definition as above. <br><br> The term <b>g&#224; n&#242;i</b> refers to two separate breeds of fighting fowls. They are <b>g&#224; &#273;&#242;n</b> <i>(short for g&#224; n&#242;i &#273;&#242;n)</i> and <b>g&#224; c&#7921;a</b><i> (short for g&#224; n&#242;i c&#7921;a).</i> <br> <b>&#272;&#242;n</b> = hitting, whipping, caning, thrashing. <br> <b>C&#7921;a</b> = Spur<br><br> <HR> <br> <P align="center" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:150%;color:brown"> <b>G&#224; &#272;&#242;n</b><br></P> <IMG ALIGN=center SRC="http://www.ganoi.com/image/ganoi/malai.machi.gif"><br><br><Br><br> G&#224; &#273;&#242;n is the naked-neck type of fowl use in tape-boxing fight. There are two major breeds of g&#224; &#273;&#242;n. They are <A HREF="http://www.ganoi.com/malai.html"><b>M&#227; l&#7841;i</b></A> (hennie) and <A HREF="http://www.ganoi.com/machi.html"><b>M&#227; ch&#7881;</b></A> (regular). There are numerous bloodlines within each breed of g&#224; &#273;&#242;n. Vietnamese cockers generally breed a fowl to maintain or enhance its fighting ability, and not paying particular attention to any physical standard. Consequently, the fowls produced range widely in their physical appearance.<br><br> <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=246 align=right border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=top><IMG hspace=0 src="image/storypic/spurs/flatspur3.jpg" align=right vspace=6 border=0></A><BR clear=all> <IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6> &nbsp; <font size="3" ><i>Spur of a 9 months old g&#224; &#273;&#242;n &nbsp; </i></font><IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6></TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> <P align="left" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:110%;color:brown"> <b>General characteristics</b></P> <b>Spurless</b><br> G&#224; &#273;&#242;n is described in many cockfighting manuals as the type of fowl that has no spur. Such a description refers to fowls that have no spur or very low protruding spurs from the Central. <br><br> According to the Author V&#432;&#417;ng H&#7891;ng S&#7875;n, in Central Viet Nam where money was hard to earn, the life of a fowl is considered valuable. It's more economic to fight spurless fowl to lessen the chance of death and injury. People of the Central preferred g&#224; &#273;&#242;n over g&#224; c&#7921;a and has developed spurless type of fowl for endurance fights. They called this type of fowl g&#224; &#273;&#242;n. Today, the term g&#224; &#273;&#242;n is also used to describe all tape boxing fowls regardless of their spur's length. <i>(The majority of g&#224; &#273;&#242;n in the South have long spurs)</i><br><br> In general, the fighting technique of G&#224; &#273;&#242;n differ from G&#224; c&#7921;a. G&#224; &#273;&#242;n tends to use its shanks and feet to whip opponent while g&#224; c&#7921;a punctures and cuts with its spurs.  G&#224; c&#7921;a also grows its spurs at a faster rate in comparison to  G&#224; &#273;&#242;n . <br><br> Traditionally, people fight g&#224; &#273;&#242;n with blunted spurs or cut them so that the only combative weapon is the whipping legs. <br><br><br> <br> <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=220 align=right border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=top><IMG hspace=0 src="http://www.ganoi.com/image/ganoi/head/head4.jpg" align=right vspace=6 border=0></A><BR clear=all> <IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6> &nbsp; <font size="3" ><i>Staring &nbsp; </i></font><IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6></TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> <b>Head and facial expression</b><br> The skull of a g&#224; n&#242;i is large, with a flat top. The face is broad, with large, raised cheekbones. G&#224; n&#242;i can shows many different emotions with its facial expressions. When it is being fed by their owner, g&#224; n&#242;i shows a happy face expression. When a stranger comes near, it display a curious, wide-eyes staring look. When placed near an opponent, it shows a mean, daring look. The thick eyes lids, deep eyes socket, high cheekbones and cold staring of g&#224; n&#242;i set it apart from a regular chicken. <br><br> <A HREF="head.html"><b>Click here</b></A> to see a collection of g&#224; n&#242;i heads.<br><br><br> <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=220 align=right border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=top><IMG hspace=0 src="image/ganoi/wrinkle.jpg" align=right vspace=6 border=0></A><BR clear=all> <IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6> &nbsp; <font size="3" ><i>Wrinkle neck skin &nbsp; </i></font><IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6></TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> <b>Large neck with thick, wrinkle skin.</b><br> G&#224; n&#242;i has a large and powerful neck. The neck is medium in length. <br>Neck bones are huge and tightly joined.<br>The thick neck skin is wrinkled. They form multiple wavy layers. <br><br><br><br> <br><br><br><br><br> <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=170 align=right border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=top><IMG hspace=0 src="image/ganoi/10mgrey.jpg" align=right vspace=6 border=0></A><BR clear=all> <IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6> &nbsp; <font size="3" ><i>Naked up to 1 year. &nbsp; </i></font><IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6></TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> <b>Nakedness</b><br> A question that many people have asked about g&#224; n&#242;i is whether or not its neck and head are naked naturally or trimmed. The answer is both. Some breeds of g&#224; n&#242;i are naked naturally, some have more feathers than other but most will be naked up to one year of age if raised in the hot climate of Viet Nam. The neck and thigh's feathers may or may not grow back in the second year. Factors such as bloodline and climate will determine how much these feathers may grow in the second year. The constant washing of the bird neck can toughen the neck skin and the feathers may not grow back.<br> In the United States, g n&#242;i can adapts to the cold climate and may possess full feathers at an earlier age. Most could have full feathers at 9 months of age when raised in the U.S. <br><br> Cockers do trim the head, neck, thigh and underwing portions of a g&#224; n&#242;i for fighting. <i>(Please see the cockfighting section for more information on trimming.)</i><br><br> To learn about the slow feather development process of g&#224; n&#242;i chicks, please see the <A HREF="development.html"><b>Feather Development</b></A> page.<br><br> The 10 months old blue stag shown here is raised in Viet Nam. All the red skin are naturally naked as the feathers are still growing. <br> <br><br> <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=252 align=right border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=top><IMG hspace=0 src="http://www.ganoi.com/image/ganoi/frogeye.jpg" align=right vspace=6 border=0></A><BR clear=all> <IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6> &nbsp; <font size="3" ><i>Frog eye. &nbsp; </i></font><IMG height=6 alt="" src="image/dot.gif" width=6></TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> <b>Frog eyes</b><br> Some g&#224; n&#242;i have frog eyes. Big eyes are not good for fighting, but frog eyes belong to a special class. The eyes are big and raised like the eyes of a frog. G&#224; n&#242;i that has frog eyes in combination with green legs is known to fight to its death instead of running.<br><br><br><br><br><br> <br><br><br> <b>Leg color</b><br> 30 years ago, cockers in South Viet Nam did not like ganoi with yellow legs. Yellow legs were either seen as inferior or as a crossed fowl with Chinese chickens used for meat. Yellow legs are probably more acceptable today than in the past. Please <A HREF="leg1.html"><b>click here</b></A> to see a collection of g&#224; n&#242;i legs.<br><br> <b>Scales</b><Br> Most g&#224; n&#242;i have two rows of scales forming a zig zag line in the center. Three or four rows of scales in g&#224; n&#242;i are not common. <br><br> <b>Other characteristics:</b><br> <ul type="disc"> <li>Thighs: Muscular. The thigh are usually longer than the shank.</li> <li>Feet: Medium to tall. Mostly square and triangular shanks in the old day. Today, round shanks are also plentiful.</li> <li>Trunk: Firmly muscled, moderately long. Belly portion undeveloped.</li> <li>Skin: Skin turns red when exposed to plenty of sun light.</li> <li>Flesh: Tough. Very tough to chew on their meat even after you've cooked them.</li> <li>Bone: Large and heavy</li> <li>Tail: Short, closed, rather narrowly set, low carried. M&#227; ch&#7881; type has long tail and sickles.</li> <li>Spurs: From two to six. Six spurs are called "l&#7909;c &#273;inh".</li> <li>Feathers: Not too many feathers on head, neck, and thighs. Feathers are crude and brittle. </li> <li>Color intensity: The feathers color is very intense and distinctive. </li> <li>Weight: Between 6 lbs. to 11 lbs. (2.8 kg. to 5 kg.)</li> <li>Crowing: G&#224; &#273;&#242;n crows relatively little compare to other type of fowls. The crowing sound is deep and low. </li> <li>Personality: Possess lot of valor, defiance, indomitableness, and prowess.</li> <li>Location: G&#224; &#273;&#242;n can be found in the following provinces:<br> Northern Viet Nam: The provinces of Lang Son, Bac Giang (formerly Ha Bac), Ha Noi.<br> Central Viet Nam: The provinces of Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan.<br> Southern Viet Nam: Ba Ria, Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh (formerly Saigon), Long An .</li> </ul> <br> <A HREF="http://www.ganoi.com/image/storypic/vietnammap.gif"><b>Click here</b></A> for a provincial map of Viet Nam <br> (Viet Nam is divided into three main regions: North, Central and South. The Central begin with the province of Thanh Ho&#225; and end with the provinces of Dac Lak, L&#226;m &#272;&#7891;ng and B&#236;nh Thu&#7853;n.) <br><br><br> <HR><Br> <P align="center" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:150%;color:brown"> <b>G&#224; C&#7921;a</b><br><Br> <IMG Align="center" SRC="image/ganoi/gacua.gif"></P><br> G&#224; c&#7921;a is the smaller and lighter type of gamefowl that has full feathers and long, sharp spurs. G&#224; c&#7921;a is native to the Southern part of Viet Nam and is not popular in the Central and the North.<br> Traditionally, g&#224; c&#7921;a was fought in sharpened, natural spurs. Today, G&#224; c&#7921;a is fought in gaff. <br><br> In general, most g&#224; c&#7921;a share the following characteristics:<br> <ul type="disc"> <li>Face: Handsome, thinner skin compare to g&#224; &#273;&#242;n</li> <li>Eyes: Round, thin eye lid.</li> <li>Neck: Short, much smaller neck than g&#224; &#273;&#242;n.</li> <li>Feet: Short, small shanks</li> <li>Spurs: Long and sharp.</li> <li>Feathers: Full feathers, long hackle and saddle feathers. </li> <li>Tail: Wide, rather bushy, low carried. Sickles are narrow and long.</li> <li>Weight: Between 5 lbs. to 7 lbs</li> </ul> <br> <P align="left" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:110%;color:brown"> <b>G&#224; Ch&#7885;i, G&#224; &#272;&#225;, G&#224; N&#242;i</b> </P> Due to the variation of language usage in Viet Nam, G&#224; n&#242;i is also known as <b>G&#224; ch&#7885;i</b> in the North and <b>G&#224; &#273;&#225; </b>in the Central. The word  ch&#7885;i means fighting. The word "&#273;&#225;" means kicking. In the South, people prefer to use the term  G&#224; n&#242;i". Vietnamese understand that all three terms mean the same thing. The choice for using a particular term is a regional preference. <br><br> In South Viet Nam where g&#224; c&#7921;a are plentiful, breeders generally specialize in either  G&#224; &#273;&#242;n or  G&#224; c&#7921;a but not both. Still, people continue using the common term  G&#224; n&#242;i to refer to both types even though there are fundamental differences in physical appearances and fighting techniques. Customarily, the breeders of  G&#224; &#273;&#242;n do not associate with the "G&#224; c&#7921;a" counterparts because each type of fowl has different fighting styles requiring different method of caring and training. <br><br> <HR> <b>Note to our readers</b><br> As a popular preference, the term  G&#224; n&#242;i when used on this website refers to  G&#224; n&#242;i &#273;&#242;n . The other type of G&#224; n&#242;i, G&#224; n&#242;i C&#7921;a, will simply be called G&#224; c&#7921;a. <br><br> <HR> <b>Contribution</b><br> This document was prepared by members of the Vietnamese Ganoi Association. Due to our limited access to information, the document still lacks important details about g&#224; n&#242;i. This limited document will be updated as we learn more about g&#224; n&#242;i. <br><br><br> <P align="center" style="font-family:time new roman;font-size:150%;color:brown"> <A HREF ="cockfighting.html"><b>Next Page - Cockfighting</b></A><BR></p> <br> <p align="center"> <A HREF ="index.html"><b> Back to index</b></A><BR></p> <br><br><br><br> </TD> </TR> </TBODY> </TABLE> </BODY> </HTML>